More than just sugar

Honey is more than just sugar. Here’s why. Honey contains 19 different sugars, many of which are produced when bees ripen the honey. Honey also contains water, at least 8 acids (pH 3.2-4.5), minerals (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ch, P, S, Si), 6 major live enzymes, 19 proteins, amino acids, and 6 vitamins […]

How to Test for Hygienic Behavior

How to test for hygienic behavior This method is taken from “A sustainable approach to controlling honey bee diseases and varroa mites” Available http://www.sare.org/publications/factsheet/0305.htm May 20, 2008. Materials 3 in. cylinder (PVC pipe) 10-15 oz liquid nitrogen (easily obtained from welding supplier) Liquid nitrogen tank Frame with more than 3 inches diameter sealed brood(Fewer than 30 […]